 # Python Operators :

### What is Operators and Operands?

Operators are special symbols that represent computations like addition and multiplication. The values the operator is applied to are called operands. Python language supports the following types of operators:

### Python Arithmetic Operators :

Assume variable a = 10 and variable b = 20, then :

Operators Description Example
+ Addition Adds values on either side of the operator a + b = 30
- Subtraction Subtracts right hand operand from left hand operand a – b = -10
* Multiplication Multiplies values on either side of the operator a * b = 200
/ Division Divides left hand operand by right hand operand b / a = 2
% Modulus Divides left hand operand by right hand operand and returns remainder b % a = 0
** Exponent Performs exponential (power) calculation on operators a**b =10 to the power 20
// Floor Division 9//2 = 4 and 9.0//2.0 = 4.0, -11//3 = -4, -11.0//3 = -4.0

Note : The division of operands where the result is the quotient in which the digits after the decimal point are removed. But if one of the operands is negative, the result is floored, i.e., rounded away from zero (towards negative infinity)

#### Example :

 ``` a = 10 b = 20 c = 0 c = a + b print ("\n Addition - Value of c is ", c) c = a - b print ("\n subtraction - Value of c is ", c) c = a * b print ("\n Multiplication - Value of c is ", c) c = b / a print ("\n Division - Value of c is ", c) c = b % a print ("\n Modulus - Value of c is ", c) c = a**b print ("\n Exponent - Value of c is ", c) a = 9.0 b = 2.0 c = a//b print ("\n Floor Dvision - Value of c is ", c) input() ```

#### Output : ### Python Comparison (Relational) Operators :

These operators compare the values on either sides of them and decide the relation among them. They are also called Relational operators. Assume variable a = 10 and variable b = 20, then :

Operators Description Example
== If the values of two operands are equal, then the condition becomes true. (a == b) is not true.
!= If values of two operands are not equal, then condition becomes true. (a != b) is true.
> If the value of left operand is greater than the value of right operand, then condition becomes true. (a > b) is not true.
< If the value of left operand is less than the value of right operand, then condition becomes true. (a < b) is true.
>= If the value of left operand is greater than or equal to the value of right operand, then condition becomes true. (a >= b) is not true.
<= If the value of left operand is less than or equal to the value of right operand, then condition becomes true. (a <= b) is true.

#### Example :

 ``` a = 10 b = 20 if ( a == b ): print ("(=) - a is equal to b") else: print ("(=) - a is not equal to b") if ( a != b ): print ("(!=) - a is not equal to b") else: print ("(!=) - a is equal to b") if ( a < b ): print ("(<) - a is less than b") else: print ("(<) - a is not less than b") if ( a > b ): print ("(>) - a is greater than b") else: print ("(>) - a is not greater than b") a = 50; b = 20; if ( a <= b ): print ("(<=) - a is either less than or equal to b") else: print ("(<=) - a is neither less than nor equal to b") if ( b >= a ): print ("(>=) - b is either greater than or equal to b") else: print ("(>=) - b is neither greater than nor equal to b") input() ```

#### Output : ### Python Assignment Operators :

Assume variable a = 10 and variable b = 20, then :

Operators Description Example
= Assigns values from right side operands to left side operand c = a + b assigns value of a + b into c
+= Add AND It adds right operand to the left operand and assign the result to left operand c += a is equivalent to c = c + a
-= Subtract AND It subtracts right operand from the left operand and assign the result to left operand c -= a is equivalent to c = c - a
*= Multiply AND It multiplies right operand with the left operand and assign the result to left operand c *= a is equivalent to c = c * a
/= Divide AND It divides left operand with the right operand and assign the result to left operand c /= a is equivalent to c = c / ac /= a is equivalent to c = c / a
%= Modulus AND It takes modulus using two operands and assign the result to left operand c %= a is equivalent to c = c % a
**= Exponent AND Performs exponential (power) calculation on operators and assign value to the left operand c **= a is equivalent to c = c ** a
//= Floor Division It performs floor division on operators and assign value to the left operand c //= a is equivalent to c = c // a

#### Example :

 ``` a = 10 b = 20 c = 0 c = a + b print ("Assigns values - Value of c is ", c) c += a print ("Add AND - Value of c is ", c) c -= a print ("Subtract AND - Value of c is ", c) c *= a print ("Multiply AND - Value of c is ", c) c /= a print ("Divide AND - Value of c is ", c) c = 2 c %= a print ("Modulus AND - Value of c is ", c) c **= a print ("Exponent AND - Value of c is ", c) c //= a print ("Floor Division - Value of c is ", c) input() ```

#### Output : ### Python Bitwise Operators :

Bitwise operator works on bits and performs bit by bit operation. Assume if a = 60 and b = 13 Now in binary format they will be as follows :
a = 0011 1100
b = 0000 1101

Operators Description Example
& Binary AND Operator copies a bit to the result if it exists in both operands (a & b) (means 0000 1100)
| Binary OR It copies a bit if it exists in either operand (a | b) = 61 (means 0011 1101)
^ Binary XOR It copies the bit if it is set in one operand but not both (a ^ b) = 49 (means 0011 0001)
~ Binary Ones Complement It is unary and has the effect of 'flipping' bits (~a ) = -61 (means 1100 0011 in 2's complement form due to a signed binary number
<< Binary Left Shift The left operands value is moved left by the number of bits specified by the right operand a << 2 = 240 (means 1111 0000)
>> Binary Right Shift The left operands value is moved right by the number of bits specified by the right operand a >> 2 = 15 (means 0000 1111)

#### Example :

 ``` a = 60 #60 = 0011 1100 b = 13 #13 = 0000 1101 c = 0 c = a & b; #12 = 0000 1100 print ("Binary AND - Value of c is ", c) c = a | b; #61 = 0011 1101 print ("Binary OR - Value of c is ", c) c = a ^ b; #49 = 0011 0001 print ("Binary XOR - Value of c is ", c) c *= a print ("Multiply AND - Value of c is ", c) c = ~a; #-61 = 1100 0011 print ("Binary Ones Complement - Value of c is ", c) c = a << 2; #240 = 1111 0000 print ("Binary Left Shift - Value of c is ", c) c = a >> 2; #15 = 0000 1111 print ("Binary Right Shift - Value of c is ", c) input() ```

#### Output : ### Python Logical Operators :

Assume variable a = 10 and variable b = 20, then :

Operators Description Example
and Logical AND If both the operands are true then condition becomes true. (a and b) is true.
or Logical OR If any of the two operands are non-zero then condition becomes true. (a or b) is true.
not Logical NOT Used to reverse the logical state of its operand. Not(a and b) is false.

#### Example :

 ``` a = 10 b = 20 if a and b: print("and - true") else: print("and - false") if a or b: print("or - true") else: print("or - false") if not b: print("not - true") else: print("not - false") input() ```

#### Output : ### Python Membership Operators :

Python’s membership operators test for membership in a sequence, such as strings, lists, or tuples. There are two membership operators as explained below :

Operators Description Example
in Evaluates to true if it finds a variable in the specified sequence and false otherwise. x in y, here in results in a 1 if x is a member of sequence y.
not in Evaluates to true if it does not finds a variable in the specified sequence and false otherwise. x not in y, here not in results in a 1 if x is not a member of sequence y.

( Assume variable a = 10 and variable b = 20 )

#### Example :

 ``` a = 10 b = 20 list = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10 ]; if ( a in list ): print ("(in) - a is available in the given list") else: print ("(in) - a is not available in the given list") if ( b not in list ): print ("(not in) - b is not available in the given list") else: print ("(not in) - b is available in the given list") input() ```

#### Output : ### Python Identity Operators :

Identity operators compare the memory locations of two objects. There are two Identity operators explained below :

Operators Description Example
is Evaluates to true if the variables on either side of the operator point to the same object and false otherwise. x is y, here is results in 1 if id(x) equals id(y).
is not Evaluates to false if the variables on either side of the operator point to the same object and true otherwise. x is not y, here is not results in 1 if id(x) is not equal to id(y).

( Assume variable a = 20 and variable b = 20 )

#### Example :

 ``` a = 20 b = 20 if ( a is b ): print ("(is) - a and b have same identity") else: print ("(is) - a and b do not have same identity") if ( id(a) == id(b) ): print ("(id) - a and b have same identity") else: print ("(id) - a and b have same identity") a = 10 if ( a is not b ): print ("(is not) - a and b do not have same identity") else: print ("(is not) - a and b have same identity") input() ```

#### Output : 