C Operators

Everything about C operators and it's expressions.

Operators & Expressions

C is a powerful and widely-used programming language that provides a variety of operators for performing different types of operations on data. Operators in C can be classified into several categories based on their functionality:

Arithmetic Operators:

These operators are used to perform basic arithmetic operations.

Operators Meanings Examples Results
+ Addition: Adds two operands. 5+2 7
- Subtraction: Subtracts the right operand from the left operand. 5-2 3
* Multiplication: Multiplies two operands. 5*2 10
/ Division: Divides the left operand by the right operand. 5/2 2
% Modulus: Computes the remainder of the division of the left operand by the right operand. 5%2 1

Syntax:

int a = 10, b = 5, result;
result = a + b;  // result contains 15

Relational Operators:

These operators are used for comparing two values.

Operators Meanings Examples Results
== Equal to: Checks if two operands are equal. 5==2 false
!= Not equal to: Checks if two operands are not equal. 5!=2 true
> Greater than: Checks if the left operand is greater than the right operand. 5>2 true
< Less than: Checks if the left operand is less than the right operand. 5<2 false
>= Greater than or equal to: Checks if the left operand is greater than or equal to the right operand. 5>=2 true
<= Less than or equal to: Checks if the left operand is less than or equal to the right operand. 5<=2 false

Syntax:

int x = 5, y = 10;
if (x > y) {
    // Code here will not execute
} else {
    // Code here will execute
}

Logical Operators:

These operators are used to perform logical operations.

Operators Meanings Examples Results
&& Logical AND: Returns true if both operands are true. (5<2)&&(5>3) false
|| Logical OR: Returns true if at least one operand is true. (5<2)||(5>3) true
! Logical NOT: Returns true if the operand is false, and false if the operand is true. !(5>2) true

Syntax:

int a = 1, b = 0;
if (a && b) {
    // Code here will not execute
} else {
    // Code here will execute
}

Assignment Operators:

These operators are used to perform logical operations.

i = 5;
Operators Meanings Examples Results
= Assignment: Assigns the value of the right operand to the left operand. j = 2;

i = j;
Now 'i' value is '2'
+= Add and assign: Adds the right operand to the left operand and assigns the result to the left operand. i+=10 15
-= Subtract and assign): Subtracts the right operand from the left operand and assigns the result to the left operand. i-=10 -5
*= Multiply and assign: Multiplies the left operand by the right operand and assigns the result to the left operand. i*=10 50
/= Divide and assign: Divides the left operand by the right operand and assigns the result to the left operand. i/=10 0
%= Modulus and assign: Computes the modulus of the left operand with the right operand and assigns the result to the left operand. i%=10 5

Syntax:

int i = 5;
i += 10;  // meaning i = i + 10

Increment and Decrement Operators:

These operators are used to increment (++) or decrement (--) a variable by 1. For example, ++ is used to increase, and -- is used to reduce the value of an integer or char variable.

Syntax:

int count = 10;
count++;  // count now contains 11

Bitwise Operators:

These operators perform bitwise operations on integer types, and Bitwise operators are used for low-level operations, such as bit manipulation.

Operators Meanings
<< Left shift: Shifts the bits to left.
>> Right shift: Shifts the bits to right.
~ Bitwise NOT: Bitwise inversion (one's complement).
& Bitwise AND: Bitwise logical and.
| Bitwise NOT: Bitwise logical or.
^ Bitwise XOR: Bitwise logical exclusive or.

Example:

c Copy Code
#include <stdio.h>

int main() {
    // Bitwise AND (&) operator
    int num1 = 12; // Binary: 1100
    int num2 = 6;  // Binary: 0110
    int result_and = num1 & num2;
// Output: 4 (Binary: 0100)
    printf("Bitwise AND: %d\n", result_and);

    // Bitwise OR (|) operator
    int num3 = 12; // Binary: 1100
    int num4 = 6;  // Binary: 0110
    int result_or = num3 | num4;
// Output: 14 (Binary: 1110)
    printf("Bitwise OR: %d\n", result_or);

    // Bitwise XOR (^) operator
    int num5 = 12; // Binary: 1100
    int num6 = 6;  // Binary: 0110
    int result_xor = num5 ^ num6;
// Output: 10 (Binary: 1010)
    printf("Bitwise XOR: %d\n", result_xor);

    // Bitwise NOT (~) operator
    int num7 = 12;        // Binary: 1100
    int result_not = ~num7;
// Output: -13 (Binary: 11111111111111111111111111110011)
    printf("Bitwise NOT: %d\n", result_not);

    // Left shift (<<) operator
    int num8 = 8;        // Binary: 1000
    int result_left_shift = num8 << 2;
// Output: 32 (Binary: 100000)
    printf("Left Shift: %d\n", result_left_shift); 

    // Right shift (>>) operator
    int num9 = 16;       // Binary: 10000
    int result_right_shift = num9 >> 2;
// Output: 4 (Binary: 100)
    printf("Right Shift: %d\n", result_right_shift); 

    return 0;
}
Output:
Bitwise AND: 4
Bitwise OR: 14
Bitwise XOR: 10
Bitwise NOT: -13
Left Shift: 32
Right Shift: 4

Conditional (Ternary) Operator:

Conditional operator is used to check a condition and select a value depending on the condition. Normally the selected value will be assigned to a variable which ha the following form.

Syntax:

variable = (condition) ? value 1 : value 2;

Example:

c Copy Code
#include <stdio.h>

int main() {
    int num1 = 10;
    int num2 = 20;
    
    // Using the conditional operator to find the maximum of two numbers
    int max = (num1 > num2) ? num1 : num2;
    
    printf("The maximum of %d and %d is: %d\n", num1, num2, max);
    return 0;
}
Output:
The maximum of 10 and 20 is: 20

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