C++ Introduction

C++ history & features.

History:

The C++ programming language was developed at Bell Labs (AT&T) in the early 1980s by Bjarne Stroustrup. He found 'C' lacking for simulations and decided to extend the language by adding features from his favorite language, simula 67.

* The Name C++ (Pronounced C plus plus) was coined by Rick Mascitti, where "++" is the C increment operator.

Journey of C++:

The journey of C++ is a fascinating one that spans several decades and has had a significant impact on the world of computer programming. Here's a brief overview of the key milestones in the evolution of C++:

  • C++ (1983):

In 1983, Bjarne Stroustrup released the first official version of C++, which was an extension of C with Classes.

  • Standardization (1998):

C++ continued to evolve, and in 1998, the ISO/IEC published the first international standard for the C++ programming language, known as C++98. This standardization effort helped ensure that C++ was consistent and portable across different platforms.

  • C++11 (2011):

In 2011, the C++ language underwent a significant update with the release of C++11. This update introduced many new features and improvements, including lambda expressions, smart pointers, and a standard library overhaul.

  • C++14 (2014):

C++14 brought further enhancements, such as improved type inference and generic programming capabilities. It aimed to make the language more expressive and efficient.

  • C++17 (2017):

C++17 introduced even more features, including structured bindings, new standard library components, and parallel algorithms. It focused on making the language safer and more productive for developers.

  • C++20 (2020):

C++20 added several significant features and improvements, such as concepts, modules, and coroutines. It aimed to make the language more modern and feature-rich.

  • Ongoing Evolution:

he C++ language continues to evolve, with new standards and updates being developed by the C++ Standards Committee. These updates aim to improve the language's usability, safety, and performance.

Throughout its journey, C++ has been widely used for a variety of applications, including system programming, game development, embedded systems, and high-performance applications.

Features of C++:

C++ is a versatile and powerful programming language with a rich set of features. Here are some key features of C++:

  1. Syntax Simplicity: C++ was designed to be an extension of the C programming language, making it relatively easy for C programmers to learn. The syntax is concise and allows low-level manipulation.
  2. Data Types: C++ supports a variety of data types, including fundamental types (int, float, char, etc.), user-defined types (structures and classes), and derived types (arrays, pointers, and references).
  3. Classes and Objects: C++ allows you to define classes, which are user-defined data types, and create objects based on these classes. This forms the basis of object-oriented programming.
  4. Pointers and Memory Management: ++ provides pointers, which allow direct manipulation of memory addresses. This gives programmers control over memory allocation and deallocation.
  5. Exception Handling: C++ supports exception handling to deal with runtime errors and improve program robustness.
  6. Size and Efficiency: C++ gives the programmer more control over system resources, making it possible to write highly efficient and fast programs. However, this also means that the responsibility for managing resources falls more on the programmer.
  7. Multiple Inheritance: C++ supports multiple inheritance, allowing a class to inherit properties and behaviors from more than one parent class.

Interesting Facts about C++:

C++ was developed by Bjarne Stroustrup at Bell Labs in the early 1980s. It evolved from the C programming language with the addition of object-oriented programming features.
The name "C++" refers to the increment operator (++), which increments the value of a variable by 1. The name suggests that C++ is an improvement over C.
C++ has had a significant influence on other programming languages. Java, for example, borrowed many syntax elements from C++, although it is not a direct descendant.
The Windows operating system kernel is written in a combination of C and C++. C++ is used for various components of the Windows operating system.
C and C++ have invented in the same place i.e. at AT&T (American Telephone & Telegraph) bell laboratories, located in the U.S.A.

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