C# Introduction

History & Features

Introduction:

C# (pronounced "C-sharp") is a modern, object-oriented programming language developed by Microsoft. It was introduced in the early 2000s as part of Microsoft's .NET initiative and has since become a popular language for developing a wide range of applications, including desktop, web, mobile, cloud, and enterprise software.

Although C# is derived from the 'C,' it has features such as garbage collection that allow beginners to become proficient in C# more quickly than in 'C' or 'C++.'

History:

C# was developed by Anders Hejlsberg and his team at Microsoft, and the language was designed to be a modern, versatile, and user-friendly programming language that could meet the needs of developers creating a wide range of applications. Here's a brief history:

1. Development Initiation (late 1990s): Microsoft began developing C# in the late 1990s as part of its initiative to create a new platform for building Windows applications and web services. The project was initially codenamed "Cool."

2. Official Release (2000): C# was officially announced to the public in July 2000 as part of Microsoft's new .NET framework. The first version of C# was released with Visual Studio .NET.

3. ECMA Standardization (2001): In 2001, Microsoft submitted C# to the European Computer Manufacturers Association (ECMA) for standardization. This led to the creation of the ECMA-334 standard, which defines the language.

4. ISO Standardization (2003): C# was later submitted to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was approved as an international standard in 2003 (ISO/IEC 23270).

5. Evolution and Updates: C# has undergone several updates and enhancements over the years, with each new version introducing new language features, improvements, and better integration with the .NET framework.

Key Features:

1. Object-Oriented: C# is a fully object-oriented programming language, supporting concepts like encapsulation, inheritance, and polymorphism.

2. Managed Code: C# code is compiled into Common Intermediate Language (CIL), which is executed by the Common Language Runtime (CLR). This managed code environment provides features like automatic memory management (garbage collection) and enhanced security.

3. Type Safety: C# is a statically-typed language, which means that type checking is done at compile-time, reducing the likelihood of runtime errors.

4. IDE: C# development is often done using Microsoft Visual Studio, a powerful and feature-rich integrated development environment."

5. .NET Framework: C# is closely integrated with the .NET framework, providing access to a vast set of libraries for building various types of applications.

Versions:

C# continues to evolve, with new features and improvements introduced in subsequent versions. It remains a key language in the Microsoft ecosystem and is widely used in the software development industry.

Version Year Features
C# 1.0 2000 Initial release with the .NET Framework.
C# 2.0 2005 Introduced generics, anonymous methods, and nullable types.
C# 3.0 2007 Introduced LINQ (Language-Integrated Query), extension methods, and anonymous types.
C# 4.0 2010 Introduced dynamic typing, optional and named parameters, and covariance and contravariance.
C# 5.0 2012 Introduced asynchronous programming with the async and await keywords.
C# 6.0 2015 Introduced features like expression-bodied members, null-conditional operators, and static using statements.
C# 7.0 to 10.0 2017 to 2022 Introduced a series of features like pattern matching, local functions, tuples, records, and various other enhancements.

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