C++ Structure

How to declare a 'struct' in C++?

Structure Declaration

A structure is a user-defined data type that allows you to group together variables of different data types under a single name. The declaration of a structure involves specifying the structure's name and the data members it contains. Here's the basic syntax for declaring a structure in C++:

struct MyStruct {
    // Data members (variables)
    int member1;
    double member2;
    char member3;
    // ... more members if needed

    // Constructor (optional)
    MyStruct() {
        // Initialize members if needed
        member1 = 0;
        member2 = 0.0;
        member3 = ' ';
    }
};

Let's break down the components:

'struct': This keyword is used to define a structure in C++.

'MyStruct': This is the name of the structure. You can choose any valid identifier as the structure name.

'{ /* Data members */ }': This block contains the data members of the structure. Each data member is declared with its data type and a name. In the example above, 'member1' is an integer, 'member2' is a double, and 'member3' is a character. You can add more members as needed.

'MyStruct() { /* Constructor code */ }': This is an optional constructor for the structure. The constructor is a special member function that is automatically called when an object of the structure is created. You can use it to initialize the structure's data members.

After declaring a structure, you can create variables of that structure type and access its members using the dot ('.') operator. Here's an example:

cpp Copy Code
#include<iostream>

struct MyStruct {
    int member1;
    double member2;
    char member3;

    MyStruct() {
        member1 = 0;
        member2 = 0.0;
        member3 = ' ';
    }
};

int main() {
    // Create an object of MyStruct
    MyStruct myObject;

    // Access and modify its members
    myObject.member1 = 42;
    myObject.member2 = 3.14;
    myObject.member3 = 'A';

    // Display the values
    std::cout << "Member 1: " << myObject.member1 << std::endl;
    std::cout << "Member 2: " << myObject.member2 << std::endl;
    std::cout << "Member 3: " << myObject.member3 << std::endl;

    return 0;
}
Output:
Member 1: 42
Member 2: 3.14
Member 3: A

This example demonstrates how to declare a structure, create an object of that structure, and access its members.

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