# Mathematical Calculations

## <cmath>

In C++, the '<cmath>' header (or '<math.h>' in C) provides a set of functions for performing mathematical operations. Here's a simple C++ program that find the square root of a given number:

cpp Copy Code
```#include＜iostream＞
#include＜cmath>

int main() {
// Input: Get a number from the user
double num;
std::cout << "Enter a number: ";
std::cin >> num;

// Calculate square root using std::sqrt function
if (num >= 0) {
double squRt = std::sqrt(num);
std::cout << "Square root of " << num << " is: " << squRt << std::endl;
} else {
std::cout << "Cannot calculate of a negative number." << std::endl;
}

return 0;
}```
Output:
```Enter a number: 4
Square root of 4 is: 2```

This program prompts the user to enter a number, then it calculates the square root using the 'std::sqrt' function from the '<cmath>' header.

Some commonly used functions along with examples:

cpp Copy Code
```#include＜iostream＞
#include＜cmath>

int main() {
// Basic arithmetic functions
double x = 4.0, y = 2.0;

double sum = x + y;
std::cout << "Sum: " << sum << std::endl;

// Subtraction
double difference = x - y;
std::cout << "Difference: " << difference << std::endl;

// Multiplication
double product = x * y;
std::cout << "Product: " << product << std::endl;

// Division
double quotient = x / y;
std::cout << "Quotient: " << quotient << std::endl;

// Exponential and logarithmic functions
double base = 2.0, exponent = 3.0;

// Power function: base^exponent
double powerResult = std::pow(base, exponent);
std::cout << "Power result: " << powerResult << std::endl;

// Square root
double sqrtResult = std::sqrt(x);
std::cout << "Square root of x: " << sqrtResult << std::endl;

// Logarithm to the base 10
double logResult = std::log10(x);
std::cout << "Logarithm base 10 of x: " << logResult << std::endl;

// Trigonometric functions

// Sine
std::cout << "Sine of " << angleInRadians << " radians: " << sinResult << std::endl;

// Cosine
std::cout << "Cosine of " << angleInRadians << " radians: " << cosResult << std::endl;

// Tangent
std::cout << "Tangent of " << angleInRadians << " radians: " << tanResult << std::endl;

return 0;
}```
Output:
```Sum: 6
Difference: 2
Product: 8
Quotient: 2
Power result: 8
Square root of x: 2
Logarithm base 10 of x: 0.60206

This is just a basic example, and there are many more functions available in the '<cmath>' header for various mathematical operations.

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