Mathematical Calculations

Mathematical operations in C++.

<cmath>

In C++, the '<cmath>' header (or '<math.h>' in C) provides a set of functions for performing mathematical operations. Here's a simple C++ program that find the square root of a given number:

cpp Copy Code
#include<iostream>
#include<cmath>

int main() {
    // Input: Get a number from the user
    double num;
    std::cout << "Enter a number: ";
    std::cin >> num;

    // Calculate square root using std::sqrt function
    if (num >= 0) {
        double squRt = std::sqrt(num);
        std::cout << "Square root of " << num << " is: " << squRt << std::endl;
    } else {
        std::cout << "Cannot calculate of a negative number." << std::endl;
    }

    return 0;
}
Output:
Enter a number: 4
Square root of 4 is: 2

This program prompts the user to enter a number, then it calculates the square root using the 'std::sqrt' function from the '<cmath>' header.

Some commonly used functions along with examples:

cpp Copy Code
#include<iostream>
#include<cmath>

int main() {
    // Basic arithmetic functions
    double x = 4.0, y = 2.0;

    // Addition
    double sum = x + y;
    std::cout << "Sum: " << sum << std::endl;

    // Subtraction
    double difference = x - y;
    std::cout << "Difference: " << difference << std::endl;

    // Multiplication
    double product = x * y;
    std::cout << "Product: " << product << std::endl;

    // Division
    double quotient = x / y;
    std::cout << "Quotient: " << quotient << std::endl;

    // Exponential and logarithmic functions
    double base = 2.0, exponent = 3.0;

    // Power function: base^exponent
    double powerResult = std::pow(base, exponent);
    std::cout << "Power result: " << powerResult << std::endl;

    // Square root
    double sqrtResult = std::sqrt(x);
    std::cout << "Square root of x: " << sqrtResult << std::endl;

    // Logarithm to the base 10
    double logResult = std::log10(x);
    std::cout << "Logarithm base 10 of x: " << logResult << std::endl;

    // Trigonometric functions
    double angleInRadians = 45.0; // Angles are typically in radians

    // Sine
    double sinResult = std::sin(angleInRadians);
    std::cout << "Sine of " << angleInRadians << " radians: " << sinResult << std::endl;

    // Cosine
    double cosResult = std::cos(angleInRadians);
    std::cout << "Cosine of " << angleInRadians << " radians: " << cosResult << std::endl;

    // Tangent
    double tanResult = std::tan(angleInRadians);
    std::cout << "Tangent of " << angleInRadians << " radians: " << tanResult << std::endl;

    return 0;
}
Output:
Sum: 6
Difference: 2
Product: 8
Quotient: 2
Power result: 8
Square root of x: 2
Logarithm base 10 of x: 0.60206
Sine of 45 radians: 0.850904   
Cosine of 45 radians: 0.525322 
Tangent of 45 radians: 1.61978

This is just a basic example, and there are many more functions available in the '<cmath>' header for various mathematical operations.

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