### C# Language

**•** __C & C# their operators are same?__ **⤏** While C and C# (C Sharp) share some common operators, there are also differences in their operator sets due to the distinct features and paradigms of each language. C# introduces additional operators and features that are not present in standard C, particularly because C# is designed as an object-oriented language with modern programming paradigms.

## Operators and Expressions

C# provides a variety of operators that perform operations on variables and values. Here's a list of some common operators in C#:

__Arithmetic Operators__:

Arithmetic operators perform basic mathematical operations.

Operators | Meanings |
---|---|

+ | Addition: Adds two operands. |

- | Subtraction: Subtracts the right operand from the left operand. |

* | Multiplication: Multiplies two operands. |

/ | Division: Divides the left operand by the right operand. |

% | Modulus: Returns the remainder of the division of the left operand by the right operand. |

Example:

int a = 10; int b = 3; int additionResult = a + b; // 13 int subtractionResult = a - b; // 7 int multiplicationResult = a * b; // 30 int divisionResult = a / b; // 3 int modulusResult = a % b; // 1

__Relational Operators__:

Relational operators are used to compare values and determine the relationship between them.

Operators | Meanings |
---|---|

== | Equality: Checks if the values of two operands are equal. |

!= | Inequality: Checks if the values of two operands are not equal. |

< | Less than: Checks if the value of the left operand is less than the value of the right operand. |

> | Greater than: Checks if the value of the left operand is greater than the value of the right operand. |

<= | Less than or equal to: Checks if the value of the left operand is less than or equal to the value of the right operand. |

>= | Greater than or equal to: Checks if the value of the left operand is greater than or equal to the value of the right operand. |

Example:

int x = 5; int y = 10; bool isEqual = (x == y); // Equality bool isNotEqual = (x != y); // Inequality bool isLessThan = (x < y); // Less than bool isGreaterThan = (x > y); // Greater than bool isLessThanOrEqual = (x <= y); // Less than or equal to bool isGreaterThanOrEqual = (x >= y); // Greater than or equal to

__Logical Operators__:

Logical operators perform logical operations on boolean values.

Operators | Meanings |
---|---|

&& | Logical AND: Returns true if both operands are true. |

|| | Logical OR: Returns true if at least one of the operands is true. |

! | Logical NOT: Returns true if the operand is false, and vice versa. |

Example:

bool isTrue = true; bool isFalse = false; bool logicalAnd = (isTrue && isFalse); // Logical AND bool logicalOr = (isTrue || isFalse); // Logical OR bool logicalNot = !isTrue; // Logical NOT

__Assignment Operators__:

Logical operators perform logical operations on boolean values.

Operators | Meanings |
---|---|

= | Assignment: Assigns the value on the right to the variable on the left. |

+= | Addition Assignment: Adds the right operand to the left operand and assigns the result to the left operand. |

-= | Subtraction Assignment: Subtracts the right operand from the left operand and assigns the result to the left operand. |

*= | Multiplication Assignment: Multiplies the left operand by the right operand and assigns the result to the left operand. |

/= | Division Assignment: Divides the left operand by the right operand and assigns the result to the left operand. |

%= | Modulus Assignment: Performs modulus on the left operand with the right operand and assigns the result to the left operand. |

Example:

int a = 5; int b = 10; a += b; // Addition assignment (equivalent to a = a + b) a -= b; // Subtraction assignment (equivalent to a = a - b) a *= b; // Multiplication assignment (equivalent to a = a * b) a /= b; // Division assignment (equivalent to a = a / b) a %= b; // Modulus assignment (equivalent to a = a % b)

__Increment & Decrement Operators__:

Increment and decrement operators are used to increase or decrease the value of a variable by 1.

Operators | Meanings |
---|---|

++ | Increment: Increases the value of the operand by 1. |

-- | Decrement: Decreases the value of the operand by 1. |

Example:

int count = 5; count++; // Increment by 1 (equivalent to count = count + 1) count--; // Decrement by 1 (equivalent to count = count - 1)

__Conditional Operator__:

The conditional (ternary) operator is a shorthand way to express an if-else statement in a single line.

Operator | Meanings |
---|---|

? : | Conditional: Evaluates a boolean expression and returns one of two values based on the result. |

Example:

int value = (x > y) ? x : y; /* If x is greater than y, value is assigned x; otherwise, it's assigned y. */

__Bitwise Operators__:

Bitwise operators are used to perform bitwise operations on integer-type variables.

Operator | Meanings |
---|---|

& | Bitwise AND: Performs a bitwise AND operation. |

| | Bitwise OR: Performs a bitwise OR operation. |

^ | Bitwise XOR: Performs a bitwise exclusive OR (XOR) operation. |

~ | Bitwise NOT: Performs a bitwise NOT operation (flips the bits). |

<< | Left Shift: Shifts the bits of a number to the left by a specified number of positions. |

>> | Right Shift: Shifts the bits of a number to the right by a specified number of positions. |

Example:

// Bitwise AND int resultAnd = a & b; // Binary: 0101 & 0011 = 0001 Console.WriteLine($"Bitwise AND: {resultAnd}"); // Output: 1 // Bitwise OR int resultOr = a | b; // Binary: 0101 | 0011 = 0111 Console.WriteLine($"Bitwise OR: {resultOr}"); // Output: 7 // Bitwise XOR int resultXor = a ^ b; // Binary: 0101 ^ 0011 = 0110 Console.WriteLine($"Bitwise XOR: {resultXor}"); // Output: 6 // Bitwise NOT int resultNotA = ~a; // Binary: ~0101 = 1010 (in two's complement form) Console.WriteLine($"Bitwise NOT (a): {resultNotA}"); // Output: -6 // Left Shift int resultLeftShift = a << 2; // Binary: 0101 << 2 = 010100 Console.WriteLine($"Left Shift: {resultLeftShift}"); // Output: 20 // Right Shift int resultRightShift = a >> 1; // Binary: 0101 >> 1 = 0010 Console.WriteLine($"Right Shift: {resultRightShift}"); // Output: 2

**•** These operators play a crucial role in C# programming and are used for various tasks such as mathematical calculations, comparisons, logical operations, and more.

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