C# Operators

Concept of operators & it's expressions in C#.

C & C# their operators are same? While C and C# (C Sharp) share some common operators, there are also differences in their operator sets due to the distinct features and paradigms of each language. C# introduces additional operators and features that are not present in standard C, particularly because C# is designed as an object-oriented language with modern programming paradigms.

Operators & Expressions

C# provides a variety of operators that perform operations on variables and values. Here's a list of some common operators in C#:

Arithmetic Operators:

Arithmetic operators perform basic mathematical operations.

Operators Meanings
+ Addition: Adds two operands.
- Subtraction: Subtracts the right operand from the left operand.
* Multiplication: Multiplies two operands.
/ Division: Divides the left operand by the right operand.
% Modulus: Returns the remainder of the division of the left operand by the right operand.

Example:

int a = 10;
int b = 3;
int additionResult = a + b;  // 13
int subtractionResult = a - b;  // 7
int multiplicationResult = a * b;  // 30
int divisionResult = a / b;  // 3
int modulusResult = a % b;  // 1

Relational Operators:

Relational operators are used to compare values and determine the relationship between them.

Operators Meanings
== Equality: Checks if the values of two operands are equal.
!= Inequality: Checks if the values of two operands are not equal.
< Less than: Checks if the value of the left operand is less than the value of the right operand.
> Greater than: Checks if the value of the left operand is greater than the value of the right operand.
<= Less than or equal to: Checks if the value of the left operand is less than or equal to the value of the right operand.
>= Greater than or equal to: Checks if the value of the left operand is greater than or equal to the value of the right operand.

Example:

int x = 5;
int y = 10;
bool isEqual = (x == y);  // Equality
bool isNotEqual = (x != y);  // Inequality
bool isLessThan = (x < y);  // Less than
bool isGreaterThan = (x > y);  // Greater than
bool isLessThanOrEqual = (x <= y);  // Less than or equal to
bool isGreaterThanOrEqual = (x >= y);  // Greater than or equal to

Logical Operators:

Logical operators perform logical operations on boolean values.

Operators Meanings
&& Logical AND: Returns true if both operands are true.
|| Logical OR: Returns true if at least one of the operands is true.
! Logical NOT: Returns true if the operand is false, and vice versa.

Example:

bool isTrue = true;
bool isFalse = false;
bool logicalAnd = (isTrue && isFalse);  // Logical AND
bool logicalOr = (isTrue || isFalse);  // Logical OR
bool logicalNot = !isTrue;  // Logical NOT

Assignment Operators:

Logical operators perform logical operations on boolean values.

Operators Meanings
= Assignment: Assigns the value on the right to the variable on the left.
+= Addition Assignment: Adds the right operand to the left operand and assigns the result to the left operand.
-= Subtraction Assignment: Subtracts the right operand from the left operand and assigns the result to the left operand.
*= Multiplication Assignment: Multiplies the left operand by the right operand and assigns the result to the left operand.
/= Division Assignment: Divides the left operand by the right operand and assigns the result to the left operand.
%= Modulus Assignment: Performs modulus on the left operand with the right operand and assigns the result to the left operand.

Example:

int a = 5;
int b = 10;
a += b;  // Addition assignment (equivalent to a = a + b)
a -= b;  // Subtraction assignment (equivalent to a = a - b)
a *= b;  // Multiplication assignment (equivalent to a = a * b)
a /= b;  // Division assignment (equivalent to a = a / b)
a %= b;  // Modulus assignment (equivalent to a = a % b)

Increment & Decrement Operators:

Increment and decrement operators are used to increase or decrease the value of a variable by 1.

Operators Meanings
++ Increment: Increases the value of the operand by 1.
-- Decrement: Decreases the value of the operand by 1.

Example:

int count = 5;
count++;  // Increment by 1 (equivalent to count = count + 1)
count--;  // Decrement by 1 (equivalent to count = count - 1)

Conditional Operator:

The conditional (ternary) operator is a shorthand way to express an if-else statement in a single line.

Operator Meanings
? : Conditional: Evaluates a boolean expression and returns one of two values based on the result.

Example:

int value = (x > y) ? x : y;
/* If x is greater than y, value is assigned x;
 otherwise, it's assigned y. */

Bitwise Operators:

Bitwise operators are used to perform bitwise operations on integer-type variables.

Operator Meanings
& Bitwise AND: Performs a bitwise AND operation.
| Bitwise OR: Performs a bitwise OR operation.
^ Bitwise XOR: Performs a bitwise exclusive OR (XOR) operation.
~ Bitwise NOT: Performs a bitwise NOT operation (flips the bits).
<< Left Shift: Shifts the bits of a number to the left by a specified number of positions.
>> Right Shift: Shifts the bits of a number to the right by a specified number of positions.

Example:

 // Bitwise AND
int resultAnd = a & b; // Binary: 0101 & 0011 = 0001
        Console.WriteLine($"Bitwise AND: {resultAnd}"); // Output: 1

// Bitwise OR
                                int resultOr = a | b; // Binary: 0101 | 0011 = 0111
        Console.WriteLine($"Bitwise OR: {resultOr}"); // Output: 7

// Bitwise XOR
        int resultXor = a ^ b; // Binary: 0101 ^ 0011 = 0110
        Console.WriteLine($"Bitwise XOR: {resultXor}"); // Output: 6

// Bitwise NOT
        int resultNotA = ~a; // Binary: ~0101 = 1010 (in two's complement form)
        Console.WriteLine($"Bitwise NOT (a): {resultNotA}"); // Output: -6


 // Left Shift
        int resultLeftShift = a << 2; // Binary: 0101 << 2 = 010100 
        Console.WriteLine($"Left Shift: {resultLeftShift}"); // Output: 20

// Right Shift
        int resultRightShift = a >> 1; // Binary: 0101 >> 1 = 0010
        Console.WriteLine($"Right Shift: {resultRightShift}"); // Output: 2

These operators play a crucial role in C# programming and are used for various tasks such as mathematical calculations, comparisons, logical operations, and more.

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