### Python Language

### Python - Sets:

A set is an unordered collection of unique elements. Sets are mutable, which means you can modify them after creation. Sets are denoted by curly braces *'{}'*, and elements are separated by commas.

#### Creating Sets:

Sets can be created using curly braces *'{}'* or the set *'()'* function:

# Creating a set using curly braces my_set = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} # Creating a set using the set() function another_set = set([6, 7, 8, 9, 10])

#### Operations on Sets:

Sets support various operations like union, intersection, difference, and symmetric difference:

**⤏** *Union ('|')*: Combines elements from two sets.

**⤏** *Intersection ('&')*: Returns elements common to both sets.

**⤏** *Difference ('-')*: Returns elements in the first set but not in the second set.

**⤏** *Symmetric Difference ('^')*: Returns elements that are in either of the sets, but not in both.

set1 = {1, 2, 3} set2 = {3, 4, 5} union_set = set1 | set2 # {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} intersection_set = set1 & set2 # {3} difference_set = set1 - set2 # {1, 2} symmetric_difference_set = set1 ^ set2 # {1, 2, 4, 5}

#### Modifying Sets:

Sets are mutable, meaning you can add and remove elements:

my_set = {1, 2, 3} # Adding elements my_set.add(4) my_set.update([5, 6]) # Removing elements my_set.remove(3) my_set.discard(2)

**⤏** __Membership Test__: Check if an element exists in the set.

**⤏** __Length__: Get the number of elements in a set.

my_set = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} # Membership test print(3 in my_set) # True # Length of the set print(len(my_set)) # 5

Let's create a simple Python program that demonstrates the use of sets.

def main(): # Create two sets of numbers set1 = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} set2 = {4, 5, 6, 7, 8} # Perform set operations union_set = set1 | set2 intersection_set = set1 & set2 difference_set1 = set1 - set2 difference_set2 = set2 - set1 symmetric_difference_set = set1 ^ set2 # Print the results print("Set 1:", set1) print("Set 2:", set2) print("Union:", union_set) print("Intersection:", intersection_set) print("Difference (Set 1 - Set 2):", difference_set1) print("Difference (Set 2 - Set 1):", difference_set2) print("Symmetric Difference:", symmetric_difference_set) if __name__ == "__main__": main()

Set 1: {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} Set 2: {4, 5, 6, 7, 8} Union: {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8} Intersection: {4, 5} Difference (Set 1 - Set 2): {1, 2, 3} Difference (Set 2 - Set 1): {8, 6, 7} Symmetric Difference: {1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8}

This program defines a *'main()'* function where we create two sets, *'set1'* and *'set2'*. We then perform various set operations and print the results. Finally, we call the *'main()'* function to execute the program.

**•** Sets are useful when you need to work with unique elements and perform operations like finding intersections or differences between collections.

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